Richard Flanagan - Author - Wanting - Flanagan
Terrorist - Borders - Assassin - Mind Terrorist
Dictionaries And The Authoritarian Tradition
Authoritarian Origins Of Democratic Party Systems In Africa
Why have seemingly similar African countries developed very different forms of democratic party systems? Despite virtually ubiquitous conditions that are assumed to be challenging to democracy - low levels of economic development, high ethnic heterogeneity, and weak state capacity - nearly two dozen African countries have maintained democratic competition since the early 1990s. Yet the forms of party system competition vary greatly: from highly stable, nationally organized, well-institutionalized party systems to incredibly volatile, particularistic parties in systems with low institutionalization. To explain their divergent development, Rachel Beatty Riedl points to earlier authoritarian strategies to consolidate support and maintain power. The initial stages of democratic opening provide an opportunity for authoritarian incumbents to attempt to shape the rules of the new multiparty system in their own interests, but their power to do so depends on the extent of local support built up over time. The particular form of the party system that emerges from the democratic transition is sustained over time through isomorphic competitive pressures embodied in the new rules of the game, the forms of party organization and the structure of competition that shape party and voter behavior alike.
Directions For The Proper Choice Of Authors To Form A Library
From THE PREFACE.
THE short essay here offered to the Reader's Perusal, is intended by the Author, to be a Help, to him in the Choice of Books, which are worthy of his Notice in the several Subjects they treat of. Something of this Sort seems to have been long wanted, and the prodigious increase of Books, within these last fifty Years, makes it more necessary to distinguish those Writers, who have with Success, by their Merit, obtained a valuable Character, from those, who have merely by Necessity, or from lucrative Views only, commenced Authors, and taxed the Publick at too dear a Rate, for their trifling and ignorant Performances. The Author is far from offering his Tract as a compleat Work, or a faultless Performance, but he believes, (short as it is,) it may rather be redundant in Authors, than any Way deficient in pointing out those of Merit. The Heads on which he has been shortest, are Divinity, Physick, Law, Mathematicks, Astronomy, Gardening, Heraldry, and other Arts; but, that those who apply themselves to any of these particular Studies, (the three first of which have Writers in Abundance,) may know where to find a fuller Account of the Authors on those Subjects, I have here mentioned the Books which will best acquaint them with the several Performances, and the just Character they deserve, which are. as follow: For Divinity, Bray's Bibliotheca Parochialis, 8vo. Wilkin's on Preaching, Bp. Beveridge's Thesaurus Theologicus, 4 vols, and Boswell's Method of Studying, 2 vols. 8 vo. For Physick, Boerhaave's Method of Studying Physick, and James's Medical Dictionary. For Law, Mr. Worrall's Law Catalogue, which is a very compleat List of Books, and some sensible Gentleman of the Profession, will give a Character of the Books worth having. For Mathematicks, &c. the Authors cited in Mr. Chambers's Dictionary, Miller's Gardener's Dictionary, Coates's Dictionary of Heraldry, will, I believe, answer the Purpose. If some abler Hand shall enlarge my Plan, it may be of greater Use: as it is, to those who read in their own Language only, this may be of some Service; for their Use alone it is intended and the Author, who has by a long acquaintance with Books, become; in some Degree fit for this Work, would be glad hereby to be useful to others.
The Unknown Terrorist Articles
The Unknown Terrorist Books